Rail gauge is the distance from the inside of one rail on a railroad track to the inside of the other. The Japan Rail Pass tends to be more cost effective the more you travel and the longer the distance. Today, the same view complete with an exact replica of the locomotive painted the same reddish-brown can be seen among trees that have grown tall in the intervening years. Except for very short railways and some tram systems with a flat fare, fare varies by distances or number of zones travelled. For example, the Tōbu Isesaki Line has Local, Section Semi-Express, Semi-Express, Section Express, Express, Rapid, Section Rapid, and Limited Express. JR Freight is not the only rail freight carrier in Japan. The locomotives supplied by Robert Stephenson & Company had B-1 axles on a long (384 cm) fixed wheelbase with the trailing wheels mounted on a fixed frame. It’s also the case that Standard Gauge, while common in modern English-speaking countries, only accounts for a little more than half the rail-miles (or rail-km) in use today, and had a lesser share in the past. In principle, tramways can have sections shared with road traffic while railways cannot, but the choice may seem rather arbitrary in certain cases. Interactive and PDF downloadable maps to help you plan your trip to Japan. , The following 16 companies are classified as the major private railways and are operating 2,870.1 kilometers of railways. The Shinkansen network uses standard gauge. The gauge of a railway track is defined as the clear minimum perpendicular distance between the inner faces of the two rails. Japan is where regular, high-speed railways were born. Trains are also used as a means to commit suicide. Line names are shown on a ticket to indicate the route of the ticket. Examples of Category 2 railway businesses include most operations of the Japan Freight Railway Company (JR Freight) and the JR Tōzai Line operation of the West Japan Railway Company (JR West). (At the time, Norway was the poorest region in Europe with a population of 2 million.) All the railway and tram lines in Japan are named by the operators. Today's conventional (non-shinkansen) rail network does not have curves sharp enough to require narrow gauge and Norway's main lines have even sharper curves but the tracks are built to standard gauge.  When trains are delayed for five minutes, the conductor makes an announcement apologizing for the delay and the railway company may provide a "delay certificate" (遅延証明書), as no one would expect a train to be this late. The 3' gauge is not a problem because the island line is not connected to any other. Japanese railways are among the most punctual in the world. 76 of 1921). Railways with broader gauge are limited to those built not intending to provide through freight and passenger transport with the existing national network. The country’s Shinkansen ‘Bullet Train’ network has been developed over more than 50 years and covers all main trunk routes. the "Gonō Line" connects Goshogawara and Noshiro); or a course of the line (e.g. It is the same track gauge … Suicides often cause delays on the lines on which they occur. However, some adaptation to local conditions may still be necessary, e.g. Pihl was the only Norwegian with any experience in rail engineering, and played an important role in building his country's first railway, a standard-gauge line that opened in 1854. He had great difficulty before designing flexible high-pressure steam pipes to fit the bogie configuration. In 1863, the same year that British railway engineers first became interested in narrow-gauge railway developments in Norway and the year that the 2' gauge Festiniog Railway began steam operations, Inoue left Japan in secret with four friends bound for England. Easily create your route on a map, search for accommodation, estimate costs, and more! The JR Group lies at the heart of Japan's railway network, operating almost all intercity rail services and a large proportion of commuter rail services. Other lines including the Sekihoku Main Line, Senmo Main Line, the Nayoro - Wakkanai section of the Soya Line and Kushiro - Nemuro section of the Nemuro Line are proposed for conversion to Third Sector operation, but if local governments are not agreeable, such sections will also face closure. Railway-related people at Festiniog decided to mechanize the track using steam locomotives.  Because of the massive use of its railway system, Japan is home to 46 of the world's 50 busiest stations. The fare ticket is valid regardless of number of transfers. With the benefit of hindsight, Pihl was right to choose the 3'6" narrow gauge because it offers greater operating safety, higher transport capacity and better ride comfort than the 3', meter and other narrow gauges. His return coincided with the establishment of a new Meiji government that was eager to modernize the country. Norway's rail technology and locomotives came from Britain, so it is natural that the railway consultants in Britain's colonies were extremely interested in transportation developments there. Since express trains are not separated by special gates from ordinary trains, express service requires manual inspection of tickets by a conductor, and express tickets can be purchased from the conductor. Japan pioneered the high-speed shinkansen or "bullet train", which now links Japan's largest cities at speeds of up to 320 km/h (200 mph). There are 45° shock absorbers between the bogies and axle boxes and the axles appear to shift laterally as the train passes a curve. An important aspect of the romance of the rails in Japan is the ekiben, the station bento lunchbox. The rail industry in Britain which inflicted years of delays on passengers after the Hatfield disaster has been shamed by their Japanese counterparts. It was often served in a wooden box; nowadays cardboard and plastics have become popular, although wooden chopsticks still accompany the ekiben. However, the same rolling stock is used for limited expresses on trunk lines with many sharp curves, causing the train to slow to less than 100 km/h and emit screeching from the bogies. Reconstructed mixed-gauge , 1,435 mm ( 4 ft 8 1 ⁄ 2 in ) standard gauge / 7 ft 1 ⁄ 4 in ( 2,140 mm ) track at Didcot Railway Museum , England Other notable crimes staged in railway facilities in Japan include the assassination of the Prime Minister Hara Takashi in Tokyo Station in 1921, the deliberate train wreck at Mitaka Station in 1949 and the Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway in 1995. In addition, many cities have streetcar and monorail networks. This left some unnamed branch lines, which would have been closed if they had line names, unaffected by the restructure. The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as JR Group (JRグループ, Jeiāru Gurūpu), consists of seven for-profit companies (kabushiki gaisha) that took over most of the assets and operations of the government-owned Japanese National Railways on April 1, 1987. Japan's sleek Shinkansen bullet trains zoomed onto the railway scene in the 1960s, shrinking travel times and inspiring a global revolution in high-speed rail travel that continues to … Clearly, the cheaper narrow gauge would have offered advantages to the builders partly because of Norway's difficult topography with many mountains, lakes and fjords and partly because of its backward economy. Japanese N Scale Trains. The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as JR Group, is a group of successors of the government-owned Japanese National Railways (JNR). Dual-gauge rail lines are used in Switzerland, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Japan, North Korea, Spain, Tunisia and Vietnam. (Some Japanese readers might hope for a Japanese version too.) Japan's railways were originally built to narrow gauge with the rails 3' 6\" apart, and today a comprehensive network of these lines covers the whole country, linking cities, towns and even villages,see a rail map of Japan here. Railways with many types of trains use prefixes like "semi-", "rapid-", "section-", or "commuter-". There are 2,324 rail gauge suppliers, mainly located in Asia. The top supplying country or region is China, which supply 100% of rail gauge respectively. A round trip between Tokyo and Kyoto could cost between 26,000 and 27,000 yen. On the other hand, Japan depended entirely on funds raised in England, so we can assume that the Japanese government was not in a position to consider any track other than narrow gauge. A train that stops at every station is called a local train (普通列車/各駅停車, futsū-ressha/kakueki-teisha). Classifications of rail transport in Japan, Free, Early Japanese Railways 1853–1914: Engineering Triumphs That Transformed Meiji-era Japan, Tuttle Publishing, 2008 (, List of railway electrification systems in Japan, Tokyo metropolitan government's Transportation Bureau, unlawfully riding trains without paying the correct fare, List of defunct railway companies in Japan, The 51 busiest train stations in the world– All but 6 located in Japan ‹ Japan Today: Japan News and Discussion, "JR Hokkaido says it can't maintain half of its railways", "Why Tokyo's Privately Owned Rail Systems Work So Well", "Lessons from Japanese Experiences of Roles of Public and Private Sectors in Urban Transport", "Railways in Japan—Public & Private Sectors", "Japanese Law Translation - [Law text] - Landscape Act", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Central Japan Railway Company Annual Report 2018", "Corporate Culture as Strong Driving Force for Punctuality- Another "Just in Time, "More Tokyo train stations start using lights to stem suicides", "Suicide Prevention Barriers For Yamanote Line", List of bus operating companies in Japan (east), List of East Japan Railway Company stations, Sōtetsu Shin-Yokohama Line & Tōkyū Shin-Yokohama Line, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rail_transport_in_Japan&oldid=1002491199, Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. They had to be, because their power came from atmosphere pressures, and the only way to boost output was to increase piston area. Railways were built by private corporations developing integrated communities along the railway lines, allowing them to achieve profitability by diversifying into real estate, retail, and numerous other businesses. Another 11 private rail freight companies serve ports, and eight private railways carry cement, limestone, coal and other commodities. Trains on the classic network are usually categorised as local, rapid, express or limited express, with the latter two categories requiring an express or limited express seat fee on top of the basic fare. However, other trains running on the conventional line or "zairaisen" remain relatively slow, operating at fastest 160 km/h and mostly under 130 km/h, most likely due to the wide usage of Narrow-gauge tracks they operate on.  Train numbers are almost exclusively for professional use. The minimum radius for track curves around Hamar was 300 m, but in the northern Trondheim district, it was set at only 200 m or so, although Stephenson's company had insisted on a minimum radius of 300 yards (275 m). Cities with such intermediate capacity transit systems include Hiroshima, Kobe, Osaka, Saitama and Tokyo. Meanwhile, in England, lobbyists eager to take advantage of recent technical advances overseas began pressuring the government to permit narrow-gauge railway construction. There are also dozens of smaller local private railways. At the end of the 1860s, who would have thought that Japan would become a major economic power? This was the origin of the 3' gauge in the United States. New railways are usually built to standard gauge unless there is a compelling reason (e.g. , As such, through diversification of their business, the majority of the private railways in Japan are financially independent and their railway operations are usually profitable, in sharp contrast to most transit networks in other countries. Edmund Morel (1841â71), a British engineer hired by the Japanese government, conferred with Inoue and it is likely that these two men agreed on 3'6". Gauge, also called Railway Gauge, in railroad transportation, the width between the inside faces of running rails.Because the cost of construction and operation of a rail line is greater or less depending on the gauge, much controversy has surrounded decisions in respect to it, and a proliferation of gauges has developed throughout the world. Train operators usually name long distance trains (Kintetsu is a rare exception of this practice). This was more strenuous work than hauling slate inside the mine because the elevation rose by 216 m over a length of 22 km. Japan's railways carried 31 million tons (21 billion tonne-kilometres) of goods in 2013-14. It is a reference to Taira Satsuma-no-kami Tadanori, a member of the Taira clan who is mentioned in the Tale of the Heike. For example, Osaka Metro is a tram system while subways in other cities are railways.. Incidentally, Japan imported the same type of 1-B locomotive for its first Class 150, but the leading wheels were fixed. One is Satsuma-no-kami. The gauge-change took time and was only completed during Japan's wartime occupation. Norway gradually replaced its narrow gauge track with standard gauge but Japan did not take this road because of economic and military considerations. A new age had arrivedâa time when narrow-gauge railways were being accepted by rail experts as an excellent way to bring modern civilization to underdeveloped parts of the world. A second 3'6" narrow-gauge track began linking the northern city of Trondheim on the Atlantic Ocean with the interior in August 1864. Rail transport in Japan is a major means of passenger transport, especially for mass and high-speed travel between major cities and for commuter transport in urban areas. Japanese national network operated by Japan Railways Group employs narrow gauge 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) and has maximum width of 3,000 mm (9 ft 10 in) and maximum height of 4,100 mm (13 ft 5 in); however, a number JR lines were constructed as private railways prior to nationalisation in the early 20th century, and feature loading gauges smaller than the standard. Two years later, he began working on a railway construction project in eastern England. The 20- to 25-kg rails can accommodate an axle load of 6 tonnes and are so thin that the gauge appears wider than it is.  Platform edge doors are also being installed at numerous stations in an effort to keep people contained on the platform until the train arrives.. Until the mid-1850s, a railway builder could only choose between standard gauge and broad gauge, explaining why standard gauge was called narrow gauge in those days! "Merging Lines: Organising Japan's National Railroad, 1906-1914", Meitetsu Highway Bus Center (@Nagoya Station), This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 18:22. In exchange for developing rail lines, private corporations were given business opportunities to diversify their operations and develop the real estate surrounding their railway networks. Outlying and suburban areas are served by seven private railway companies, whose lines intersect at major stations with the subway system. Government policy promoted railways as an efficient transportation system for a country that lacks fossil fuels and is nearly completely dependent on imports. Vice Minister of Finance Okuma had no first-hand knowledge of track gauges and surely had no option but to accept Inoue's recommendation. Examples of Category 3 railway businesses include the Kōbe Rapid Transit Railway company and the government of Aomori Prefecture with regards to the Aoimori Railway. Cape Gauge is very close to the Metre-Gauge that many of the secondary lines in France. Passengers refer the railway by the name of line (e.g. The rail system of Japan consists of the following (as of 2009):. The cheap-to-build narrow gauge was probably the only option considered at the time. These include the Chūō Main Line west of Takao, the Minobu Line, and the Yosan Main Line west of Kan'onji (3,900 mm (12 ft 10 in) height). Trains that stop at fewer stations and are therefore faster than local trains are classified as Rapid (快速, kaisoku), Express (急行, kyūkō), Limited Express (特急, tokkyū), etc. They left in secret, because the Japanese Tokugawa Shogunate still banned foreign travel.  The entire line closed on March 31, 2018.. In those days, the government still had not come up with its strident âEnrich the Country and Strengthen the Military' slogan. The information was put to good use the following year in Queensland. The only double-tracked sections are commuter lines and the rail link from Oslo to Oslo Airport. Freight service belongs to Japan Freight Railway Company or JR Freight which operates all freight network previously owned by JNR. Since both Stephensons (George and Robert) were locomotive manufacturers, they could adapt their engines to any track gauge, but they were still not completely sure about performance on narrow gauges and had tried a number of experiments in a mine that they operated. Norway's modern standard-gauge railways have plenty of curves, and you rarely see a straight stretch of track. In your case you will also be entitled to use: The fixed wheelbase was too long for the sharp curves in the Trondheim region and resulted in a derailment. It is used relatively little for freight transport, accounting for just 0.84% of goods movement.  Regional governments, and companies funded jointly by regional governments and private companies, also provide rail service. Some cities operate streetcar systems, including Hiroshima, Matsuyama, Nagasaki, Tokyo (one line only) and Toyohashi.  In comparison, Germany has over 40,000 km of railways, but carries only 2.2 billion passengers per year. But he was very interested in railway development and became a central figure in rail circles, offering financial backing and consensus-making expertise. Examples include the Keihin-Tōhoku Line and the Shōnan-Shinjuku Line. The stations can be hectic places with multiple rail lines converging, meaning not only do you have to decipher the signs you also have to wade through the crowds. The Central Committee of the Japanese Association of Railroad Station Concessionaires (社団法人日本鉄道構内営業中央会) is a prominent trade organization promoting ekiben. Legislation in England prohibited construction of narrow-gauge main lines, but the expansion of slate mining in Wales led to a search for some way to mechanize the human- and animal-powered mine railways that were mostly narrow gauge. You can buy the Japan Rail Pass online at Voyagin.com which is an official partner of JR Rail. I believe there would have been little improvement at least up until WWII. A ticket required for a travel by railway is called a fare ticket (乗車券, jōshaken), the price of which is fare (運賃, unchin). The Japan rail pass is very versatile. the "Tōzai Line" means the East-West Line). There are still some loud complaints about the problems caused by Japan's adoption of the 3'6" narrow gauge but it is simplistic to say that if Japanese railways had switched to standard gauge they would have immediately enjoyed greater capacity and speed. Compre o livro Three foot six inch gauge railways: Rail transport in New Zealand, Rail transport in Japan, San Francisco cable car system, Hong Kong Tramways na Amazon.com.br: confira as ofertas para livros em inglês e importados Most of the liability of the JNR was assumed by the JNR Settlement Corporation. , In the legal sense, there are two types (with several subcategories) of rail transportation systems in Japan: railway (鉄道, tetsudō) and tramway (軌道, kidō). Private automobiles in Greater Tokyo account for less than 20% of daily trips as car ownership is restricted to those with a dedicated parking space. These stringent standards are considered contributors to the cause of serious accidents such as the Amagasaki rail crash in 2005.. But even Fairlie experienced considerable difficulty designing a locomotive for the 2' gauge at Festiniog and when he was later invited to the Rio Grande Railway in the United States his advice was to build no narrower than 3'. Private rail lines were encouraged to compete with each other as well as the national rail lines with the government's role limited to regulation of fares. The conversion cost relative to network integration benefits has a substantial effect on the likelihood that early ... Japan, and Brazil are the heavyweights of the world with almost 50% of the kilometres This further reduction in the width of narrow gauge from 3'6" to 3' shows how much rail technology advanced in the few years before the 1870s. He went back to England again to assist in construction of port and railway facilities, primarily in Wales and then returned home once more because of the Crimean War, becoming the first managing engineer of Norway's Railway Construction Bureau. When trains are delayed for an hour or more, it may even appear in the newspaper. While Inoue was studying in London, narrow-gauge railways were being constructed in one European colony after another and the media was praising railways and calling for more. One of the reasons for this situation was the sharp increase of ridership on the railways in the rapid growth of the postwar economy that could not be handled by small original railway terminals in the city center. Recently, the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge freight railway network (partially electrified with 25 kV AC) is proposed for Hokkaido, Honshu and the northernmost Kyushu (Kanmon strait - Hakata). Gradually, standard gauge spread throughout Britain and into other parts of Europe but when the builders began to look towards exports to less-developed areas, they preferred cheaper (and more profitable) construction methods. Examples include travelogues visiting rustic routes or unusual trains, such as the popular Sci-Fi franchise Galaxy Express 999 or murder mysteries on sleeper trains. When I sat in the lobby of the old hotel in Portmadoc at the port once served by the Festiniog Railway, I could feel the excitement of those daysâFairlie's Little Wonder hauling a delegation in four cars with 90 empty freight wagons trailing behind. In short, the fare ticket allows access to the train platforms at entrance and exit, where it is inspected by the gate or attendant at the station, while the express ticket allows one to ride an express train over the interval and is inspected by a conductor on the train. Based on an association of metal and money, kiseru jōsha is the practice of using one ticket to enter the train system and a different ticket to exit, with a long unpaid segment in the middle – purchasing two separate tickets, covering just the initial and final segments of the journey (corresponding to the bowl and mouthpiece), rather than one ticket for the whole length. The privatised network is highly efficient, requiring few subsidies and running extremely punctually.  Many stations (eki) around the country soon began to make special bento featuring local specialties such as seafood, meat or vegetables. Fairlie's locomotive had insufficient space to mount the valve gear inside, so he adopted the first Walschaert valve gear design in Britain. Needless to say, the ride comfort is poor but the upside is that you get an excellent view of the locomotive from the sixth carriage because the minimum curve radius seems to follow the 300-yard guideline recommended by Stephenson! In 1870, at the instigation of the Duke of Sutherland, the governments of Russia, India, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland sent numerous delegates to his Festiniog Railway to gather information on the new technology. A wide variety of rail gauge options are available to you, such as csa, ul, and reach. A ticket is inspected at a manned or automated gate in the station where a travel starts and is collected at the station where the travel ends. Densha de Go! Since the government prohibited construction of narrow-gauge main lines, public's attention turned to slate mines at Festiniog in Wales, where human or animal power was used to pull carts on narrow track (most no wider than 2'). Suburban or intercity railway lines usually set several types of trains (列車種別, ressha shubetsu) with different stop patterns. Surely, I thought, more can be said on the subject than just that. Take a look at our sample itineraries for inspiration and guidance on your 7, 14 or 21-day journey through Japan. This site is operated with the cooperation of the JR Group of the railroad companies of Japan.Please use it as a railroad and travel guide for enjoying your trip to Japan. 16 major regional companies which provide railway services as part of their corporate operations. Despite this efficiency, growing affluence and associated car ownership led to road transportation usage increasing to the detriment of rail from the 1960s. ", Kinzley, W. Dean. Norway only became fully independent from Sweden at the beginning of the 20th century and was nominally under Sweden's control when Stephenson and Pihl brought the first rail technology to the country. The process of ticket reservation utilizes the train names instead of the train numbers. The Japan Rail Pass is the best way to travel in Japan, period. Once you purchase the pass online, Voyagin will send an Exchange Voucher to you by post which you then exchange for the Rail Pass itself on arrival in Japan at the airport or at any JR Rail station. Rail Gauges. Japan’s Shinkansen lines are all built to Standard Gauge, because trains are more stable, and can go faster, on wider track. Find easy-to-read travel resources about the train and metro systems of Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto as well as details about the lines you can take with your Japan Rail Pass. Inoue probably would not have thought anything better was possible. Even after locomotives began using high-pressure steam, a similar rule appliedâthe larger the locomotive, the more power it had. Norway still has one 3'6" line in operationâpart of the former Setesdal Line near Kristiansand in southern Norway preserved as a vintage railway. The figure is 43.5% (as of 2001) in the largest metropolitan areas in Japan: Tokyo (including Chiba, Saitama, Tokyo, and Kanagawa Prefectures), Osaka (including Kyoto, Osaka, and Hyōgo Prefectures), and Nagoya. RAIL 1803R(1703) JTR Printed in Japan Notice While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this publication, the use of the information is at the reader’s risk and no warranty is implied or expressed by JFE Steel Corporation with respect to the use of information contained herein. In principle (with some exceptions), a section of railway has only one name. Long-distance travellers (usually longer than 101 km) are allowed unlimited number of stopovers (途中下車, tochū-gesha) along the route subject to the duration of the validity of the fare ticket. Developing a locomotive capable of pulling such a load up this grade on such a narrow gauge took 3 years. 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