Ongoing climatic changes are being monitored by networks of sensors in space, on the land surface, and both on and below the surface of the world’s oceans. Naturalists of this time, including Scottish geologist Charles Lyell, Swiss-born naturalist and geologist Louis Agassiz, English naturalist Charles Darwin, American botanist Asa Gray, and Welsh naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace, came to recognize geologic and biogeographic evidence that made sense only in the light of past climates radically different from those prevailing today. Sustainability is the long-term viability of a community, set of social institutions, or societal practice. A small change in the output of the sun’s energy can influence climate change. Individual volcanic eruptions can release large quantities of sulfur dioxide and other aerosols into the stratosphere, reducing atmospheric transparency and thus the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth’s surface and troposphere. 4. A second type of human impact, the conversion of vegetation by deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture, is receiving mounting attention as a further source of climate change. These movements have changed the shape, size, position, and elevation of the continental masses as well as the bathymetry of the oceans. Climate change is closely related to ozone depletion, global warming and the greenhouse effect. As a result, changes in vegetation, which are partially controlled by climate, can in turn influence the climate system. Changes occurring in the sun can cause climate to become warmer during periods of stronger solar intensity and cool during periods of weaker solar intensity.Studies suggest that solar variations have played a role in past climate change. The changing environment is expected to cause more heat stress, an increase in waterborne diseases, poor air quality, and diseases transmitted by insects and rodents. Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to rec… Many of the causes of climate change are external to the Earth system. This article addresses the concept of climatic variation and change within the set of integrated natural features and processes known as the Earth system. Many climatologists have pointed to this warming pattern as clear evidence of human-induced climate change resulting from the production of greenhouse gases. Variations in the rate of spreading in rift zones and the degree of volcanic activity near plate margins have influenced atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations throughout Earth’s history. Even the chemical weathering of rock constitutes an important sink for carbon dioxide. Feedbacks are among the most recently discovered and challenging causal factors to study. Causes of climate change - human and natural factors A natural function of the Earth's atmosphere is to keep in some of the heat that is lost from the Earth. There is incontrovertible evidence that the CO2 concentration in the air has never been so high in 800,000 years (probably even 6… Paleoclimate records from tree rings, coral, and ice cores indicate a clear warming trend spanning the entire 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Concentrations of greenhouse gases have varied substantially during Earth’s history, and these variations have driven substantial climate changes at a wide range of timescales. 1. Find out more about the Royal Society's work on climate change on our Basics of Climate Change page, or explore our interactive net-zero carbon infographic. Together, they make up an integrated Earth system, in which all components interact with and influence one another in often complex ways. All these factors change through time. In general, the greater the tilt, the greater the solar radiation received by hemispheres in summer and the less received in winter. 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