At a Select Committee called in Victoria in September 1853, a representative of the railway company which had not replied to Charles La Trobe's earlier memorandum, reported a preference for 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm), but when asked if Victoria should follow NSW he answered: "We must, I conclude of necessity, do so". NSW entered into the agreement to advance gauge standardisation in Victoria and South Australia, but did not ratify it. [13] This had particular consequences for the selection of railway gauge in Australia. Pilbara Rail. be adopted as the standard for Australia; that no mechanical, third rail, or other device would meet the situation, and that uniformity could be secured by one means only, viz., by conversion of the gauges other than 4-ft. [23] J. T. Bagot was one of the advocates. The work was completed in September 1974.[37]. The network consists of 2,357km of Victorian broad gauge (1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in)) lines, and 1,912km of standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1 ⁄ 2 in)) freight and interstate lines; the latter increasing with gauge conversion of the former. Intended use. First opened. [31], Even dual gauge with a third rail for combining Irish gauge and standard gauge was rejected as too reckless, as the gap between these gauges of 6.5 inches (165 mm) was considered to be too small. [21] This was the first narrow gauge main line in the world. [39] The completion of this link enabled the first Indian Pacific to run across the nation in March 1970 from Sydney to Perth. In 1846, Australian newspapers discussed the break of gauge problem in the United Kingdom, especially for defence. The journey varied from about seven months on slower ships to about two and a half months on fast clipper ships. [48][49], Cross-section of triple-gauge track at Gladstone and Peterborough, South Australia, before gauge standardisation in 1970 (click to enlarge), Triple gauge – 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in), 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) and 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) tracks – at Gladstone (SA) in March 1986, Triple gauge used in the station yards at Gladstone and Peterborough in South Australia, 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) Craigieburn line & (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) North East line in Melbourne, In Adelaide, the Belair, Gawler and Outer Harbor lines have been relaid with gauge convertible sleepers with plans to gauge convert the entire Adelaide Metro network in the future. In July 1853, the Government of Victoria advised New South Wales that it would use the broader gauge and later appealed to the British Government to force a reversal of New South Wales' decision. Over the next 12 months net freight tonnage was up 32.5% and to 1973 there was an average increase of 8.6%.[36]. New South Wales, Victoria and parts of South Australia built standard gauge, the outside track shown here, or even broad gauge tracks, for various reasons. Both the committee and the government strongly supported three standardisation projects at a cost of £41.5 million: The Commonwealth, NSW and Victorian governments were first to start work, with the first freight train operating on the converted North East line to Melbourne operating in January 1962 and the first through passenger train in April 1962. A new line was built from Woodbridge to Kwinana and one of the tracks on the Fremantle line converted to dual track from Cockburn Junction to Fremantle Harbour. 8.5-in. The lines operated by the Australian Rail Track Corporation (ARTC) are standard gauge, while V/Line freight railways from Murtoa to Hopetoun and from Dimboola to Yaapeet … The Government was persuaded to make the change back to impsg, In February 1853 the other colonies (Victoria having separated from New South Wales in 1851) were sent a memorandum advising them of the pending change and recommended they likewise adopt impsg, . [11] In 1957, a 1435 mm gauge line between Stirling North and Marree opened. It also recommended abandoning part of the existing Perth to Kalgoorlie narrow gauge line, and build a flatter and straighter route using third rail dual gauge, as modernisation was just as important as standardisation. [30] In 1933, as many as 140 devices were proposed by inventors to solve the break-of-gauge problem, none of which were adopted. , there are 11,801 kilo­me­tres (7,333 mi) of nar­row-gauge rail­ways, 17,381 kilo­me­tres (10,800 mi) of stan­dard gauge rail­ways and 3,221 kilo­me­tres (2,001 mi) of broad gauge rail­ways. Government railways in Australia of less than 1067 mm gauge . The standard-gauge route of The Ghan (line completed to Darwin in 2004); the former narrow-gauge route (Central Australia Railway, completed to Alice Springs terminus in 1929); and the standard-gauge line to Marree opened in 1957. [46], The Oaklands branch line was converted in 2009 to standard gauge as part of the project to standardise the North East line, to prevent that branch becoming isolated. It would be 94 years before all mainland state capitals were joined by one standard gauge. The North Australia Railway was constructed southwards from Darwin to Birdum, opening in 1889 and closing in 1976. Work on gauge conversion was assisted by section 51 (xxxiii) of the Constitution of Australia, which made specific provisions for the Commonwealth Parliament to make laws with respect to railway acquisition and construction. The Western Australian Government Railways adopted it in 1879 for its first line from Geraldton to Northampton. [26] It was not until 1883 when the broad and standard gauge lines from Melbourne and Sydney met at Albury, and in 1888 narrow and standard gauge from Brisbane and Sydney met at Wallangarra that the break of gauge became an issue. Australia's mixed gauge railway system: a reassessment of its origins. [16] In Victoria the memorandum was distributed to three railway companies and their responses were sought, with two replying and only one showing a distinct preference for 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm), . [37] The first wheat train ran from Merredin to Fremantle in November 1966 and the first iron ore train from Koolyanobbing to Kwinana in April 1967, with the line opened in full in August 1969. At the time of Federation, standard gauge was used in only NSW, but was favoured for further work. Gauges wider than standard gauge are called broad gauge, those smaller are called narrow gauge. It stated "that the gauge of 4-ft. 8.5-in. Over the next 12 months net freight tonnage was up 32.5% and to 1973 there was an average increase of 8.6%.[37]. To install click the Add extension button. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. The narrow gauge lines from Gladstone and Peterborough were not converted, with triple gauge yards provided. [12] This had particular consequences for the selection of railway gauge in Australia. Heavy vehicle hyrail systems are highly customisable and may be tailored to meet many requirements. Rail penetration in Australia is one of the lowest in the world. O Gauge 3 Rail Layout Benchwork Construction in Australia; 3 replies. Original rail gauges of the Australian colonies (many cities are now linked by standard gauge), using key and colours from world map. It was found that previous studies … With benefits exceeding the cost by 2.8 times over 25 years, Australian National was able to obtain a loan for the funding of the work. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. [37] It found that while there was still considerable doubt as to the justification for large scale gauge conversion, there was no doubt that work on some main trunk lines was long overdue. Rail gauges in Australia display significant variations, which has presented an extremely difficult problem for rail transport on the Australian continent for over 150 years. As of 2014, there are 11,801 kilometres (7,333 mi) of narrow-gauge railways, 17,381 kilometres (10,800 mi) of standard gauge railways and 3,221 kilometres (2,001 mi) of broad gauge railways. [4][5][6] In 1847, South Australia adopted the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) gauge as law. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, Australasian Railway Association 2004 network map, The NSW North Coast line from Acacia Ridge to, New standard gauge "strategic and developmental railway" from. Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? I would be interested in communicating with any other forum members who live in Australia, regarding what structural pine timber sizes they have used. Overbuilt English railways were criticised. The work was completed in September 1974.[38]. Click to enlarge. [46], To allow the creation of the Nucleus Transmodal Hub at Bromelton, Queensland, the Acacia Ridge to Bromelton section of the NSW North Coast line was converted to dual gauge in 2009, however it was not used until 2017. Until the 1880s the gauge issue was not a major problem, as there were no connections between the separate systems. [31] In 1933, as many as 140 devices were proposed by inventors to solve the break-of-gauge problem, none of which were adopted. Standard gauge lines run from Perth to the Western Australia–South Australia border on the Trans-Australian Railway, from Kalgoorlie to Esperance, and from Kalgoorlie to Leonora. Overbuilt English railways were criticised. The breaks of gauge were at:[26], In 1922, 273 inventions to solve the break-of-gauge had been proposed, and none adopted. Thus the so-called 'standard' gauge of 4ft. NSW entered into the agreement to advance gauge standardisation in Victoria and South Australia, but did not ratify it. be adopted as the standard for Australia; that no mechanical, third rail, or other device would meet the situation, and that uniformity could be secured by one means only, viz., by conversion of the gauges other than 4-ft. It included three main proposals:[26], The report wrote that if only main trunk lines were converted, it would introduce a multitude of break of gauge terminals and result in greatly increased costs. Australia A list of 2ft (610mm) narrow-gauge railways in Australia. The Port Lincoln system was always isolated by geography. Australian Railways Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Broad gauge is laid from Salisbury to Port Pire. A standard gauge line between Albury and Melbourne was completed in 1962 and became known as the Sydney-Melbourne railway. After the interim appointment of Henry Mais, in July 1852 the company selected a new Scottish engineer, James Wallace, who preferred the British standard gauge. A list showing each colony (they … Route length. Beginning operation in 1929, the Ghan ran on a 1067 mm narrow gauge rail line called the Central Australian Railway between South Australia and Alice Springs. NGAUGE is a leading supplier of rail products in Australia and New Zealand. Freight trains began using the line in 1983 with passenger trains following the next year when Keswick Terminal opened. The 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge was introduced to Australia in 1865, when the Queensland Railways opened its first railway from Ipswich to Grandchester. G Scale Hobbies are specialists in the design and installation of G scale garden railways in Sydney, Australia. [15] In Victoria the memorandum was distributed to three railway companies and their responses were sought, with two replying and only one showing a distinct preference for 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm). The regular, standard-gauge operations began with a set of Spirit of Progress cars being delivered to Sydney on 15 April 1962, following which there was a set in each capital city to start the regular service the next day, allowing for one daily train in each direction. [32] Dual gauge combining Irish gauge and narrow gauge where the gap was 21 in (530 mm) was also rejected. From 1994 National Rail took over the operation of virtually all standard gauge freight services to and from Brisbane, as part of a reorganisation of interstate freight in Australia. The speed of a train is a function of the diameter of wheel which in turn is limited by the gauge. 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